سوف يتتضمن الموضوع الازمنه بالترتيب التالي
Present Perf. Cont.
Past Perfect Cont.
Future Perfect Cont.
Future in Past
........................................ .......... ........................................ .......... ........................................ .......... .
يتكون زمن المضارع البسيط من الفعل في المصدر مع اضافه s للفعل عندما يكون الفاعل مفرد غائب ( he , she ,it)
FORM Simple Present
EXAMPLE: to run
USE 1 Repeated Actions
يسنخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن فعل يتكررعاده. الفعل ممكن ان يكون عاده او هوايه او فعل يتكرر كل يوم او فعل مؤكد حدوثه او شىء غالبا ما يحدث .
ممكن ان يعبر ايضا عن شىء غالبا ما ينساه الفرد او لا يفعله
Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does
لاحظ اضافه s عندما يكون الفاعل مفرد غائب
.I play tennis
.She does not play tennis
.The train leaves every morning at 8 am
.The train does not leave at 9am
.She always forgets her purse
.He never forgets his wallet
.Every twelve months, the Earth circles the sun
.The sun does not circle the Earth
USE 2 Facts or Generalizations
حقائق او التعميمات
يستخدم المضارع البسيط اذا كان المتحدث يعتقد الامر صحيح من قبل و صحيح الان و سوف يكون صحيح في المستقبل. ولا يهم اذا كان كلام المتحدث سليما ام لا .
يستخدم ايضالاصدار التعميمات عن الناس أوالأشياء .
The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people
.Cats like milk
.Birds do not like milk
.The sun rises from the east
.California is in America
.California isnot in the United Kingdom
.Windows are made of glass
.Windows are not made of wood
.New York is a small city
(.It is not important that this fact is untrue)
(USE 3 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs
قد يستخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن حدث ممكن ان يحدث او لا يحدث الان.
وهذه الحاله تكون مصحوبه ب Non-continuous ,Mixed Verbs
Sometimes speakers use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.
.I am here now
.She is not here now
.He needs help right now
.He does not need help now
.He has a car
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE
Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE
FORM Present Continuous
يتكون زمن المضارع المستمرمن فعل يكون TO BE ثم الفعل مضافا اليه ING
[AM / IS / ARE] + [VERB+ing]
.I am watching TV
He is quickly learning the language.
ملاحظه:عند استخدام باكثر من جزء ياتي الظرف بين الجزء الاول و الثاني
NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Present Continuous (is learning), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (is quickly learning).
USE 1 Now
يستخدم زمن المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن فعل يحدث الان او لا يحدث الان
Use the Present Continuous with Continuous Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
.You are learning English now
.You are not swimming now
.I am sitting
.I am not standing
.They are reading their books
.They are not watching television
؟What are you doing
؟Why aren't you doing your homework
USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now
في اللغه الانجليزيه كلمه الان ممكن ان تعني هذه اللحظه او اليوم او هذا الشهر اوهذا العام او هذا القرن و هكذا. احيانا نستخدم المضارع المستمر لنقول اننا عمل ما و العمل يسير قدما . من الممكن اننا لا نقوم بالفعل لحظه الكلام
In English, now can mean "this second," "today," "this month," "this year," "this century" and so on. Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.
EXAMPLES: (All of these
(.sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant
.I am studying to become a doctor
.I am not studying to become a dentist
.I am reading the book Tom Sawyer
.I am not reading any books right now
؟Are you working on any special projects at work
؟Aren't you teaching at the University now
USE 3 Near Future
يستخدم المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن شىء سوف يحدث او لا يحدث في المستقبل القريب
Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future
I am meeting some friends after work
I am not going to the party tonight
Is he visiting his parents next weekend
Isn't he coming with us tonight
"USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always
قد يأتي المضارع المستمر مصحوبا بكلمه مثل always او constantly بمعني دائما ليعبر عن صدمه او مفاجأه غالبا ما تحدث و هو يؤدي معني قريب في هذه الحاله من المضارع البسيط لكن للتعبير عن المشاعر السلبيه. تذكر يجب و ضع كلمه always بين verb to BE و verb+ing
The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
She is always coming to class late
He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up
I don't like them because they are always complaining
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Continuous
Right now, Tom is writing the letter. ACTIVE
Right now, the letter is being written by Tom. PASSIVE
FORM Simple Past
يتكون زمن الماضي البسيط من الفعل مضاف له ed
I visited my friends
I often visited my friends
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past
يستخدم زمن الماضي البسيط للتعبير عن حدث بدأ و انتهي في وقت محدد بالماضي.
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind
I saw a movie yesterday
I didn't see a movie yesterday
Last year, I traveled to Japan
Last year, I didn't travel to Japan
She washed her car
She didn't wash her car
USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions
نستخدم زمن الماضي البسيط لسرد مجموعه من الاحداث انتهت في الماضي
We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions
.....in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th
I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim
He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00
USE 3 Single Duration
يمكن ان يستخدم الماضي البسيط لمده زمنيه بدأت و انتهت في الماضي. المده الزمنيه الطويله غالبا ما تكون مصحوبه ببعض التعبيرات مثل for two years او
for five minutes او all day
او all year
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a long action often used with expressions like "for two years," "for five minutes," "all day" or "all year."
I lived in Brazil for two years
Shauna studied Japanese for five years
They sat at the beach all day
We talked on the phone for thirty minutes
؟How long did you wait for them
We waited for one hour
USE 4 Habit in the Past
للتعبير عن عاده في الماضي
يمكن ان يستخدم الماضي البسيط ايضا للتعبير عن عاده توقفت في الماضي.
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past.
I studied French when I was a child
He played the violin
She worked at the movie theater after school
They never went to school, they always skipped
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Past
Tom repaired the car. ACTIVE
The car was repaired by Tom. PASSIVE
يتكون زمن الماضي المستمر من WAS / WERE ثم الفعل مضافا اليه ing
[WAS / WERE] + [VERB+ing]
I was studying when she called
I was carefully picking up the snake when it bit me
NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Past Continuous (was picking), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (was carefully picking)
USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past
يستخدم الماضي المستمر ببيان فعل تمت مقاطعته في الماضي. و المقاطعه غالبا ما تكون ماضي بسيط
Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually an action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time
I was watching TV when she called
When the phone rang, she was writing a letter
While we were having a picnic, it started to rain
Sally was working when Joe had the car accident
While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.
USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption
تحديد وقت معين كمقاطعه لفعل حدث في الماضي
In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by an action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption
Last night at 6 p.m., I was eating dinner.
At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
Last night at 6 p.m., I ate dinner.
بدأت الاكل السادسه
Last night at 6 p.m., I was eating dinner.
عندما حانت الساعه السادسه كنت آكل بالفعل
USE 3 Parallel Actions
نستخدم الماضي المستمر عند وصف اكثر من فعل و هذه الافعال حدثت في نفس الوقت.
When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
I was studying while he was making dinner
While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television
They were eating dinner, discussing their plans and having a good time
USE 4 Atmosphere
يستخدم المضارع المستمر لوصف المناخ العام لمجموعه من الاحداث فب الماضي
In English we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere in the past
:EXAMPLE الموضوع الأصلى من هنا: English4arab http://www.english4arab.net/vb/t24923-post285929.html
When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad
"USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always
يستخدم ايضا لوصف التكرار و الاثاره لاحداث غالبا ما كانت تحدث في الماضي
She was always coming to class late
He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone
I didn't like them because they were always complaining
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. ACTIVE
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. PASSIVE
يتككون زمن المضارع التام من HAS / HAVE ثم التصريف الثالث للفعل
[HAS / HAVE] + [past participle]
I have seen that movie many times
I have never seen that movie
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now
يعبر زمن المضارع التام لوصف فعل بدأ في الماضي في وقت غير محدد. و الوقت المحدد غير مهم و لا يمكن استخدام تعبيرات زمنيه مثل yesterday اوone year ago او when I was a chlid الخ.
We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with time expressions such as "yesterday," "one year ago," "last week," "when I was a chlid," "when I lived in Japan," "at that moment," "that day" or "one day." We CAN use the Present Perfect with expressions like "ever," "never," "once," "many times," "several times," "before," "so far," "already" and "yet."
I have seen that movie twenty times
I think I have met him once before
There have been many earthquakes in California
؟Has there ever been a war in the United States
Yes, there has been a war in the United States
People have traveled to the moon
(USE 2 Duration From Past Until Now (Non-continuous Verbs
للتعبير عن شيء ما بدأ في الماضي و استمر الي الان
With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks" and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
I have had a cold for two weeks
She has been in England for six months
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE
That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE
Present Perfect Continuous
يتكون زمن الضارع التام المستمر من
[HAS / HAVE] + [BEEN] + [VERB+ing]
I have been waiting here for two hours
She has only been studying English for two yearsالموضوع الأصلى من هنا: English4arab http://www.english4arab.net/vb/showthread.php?p=285929
USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now
يستخدم زمن المضارع التام المستمر للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي و استمر الي الان
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes", "for two weeks", and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect
They have been talking for the last hour
She has been working at that company for three years
James has been teaching at the University since June
USE 2 Recently, Lately
يستخدم زمن الضارع التام المستمر بدونفتره زمنيه الاعطاء معني اشمل و اعم.
و نستخدم عامه في هذه الحاله تعبيرات مثل lately( مؤخرا)
You can use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for five minutes", "for two weeks", and "since Tuesday". Without the durations, the this tense gives a more general meaning of "lately". We often use the words "lately" or "recently" in the sentence to strengthen this meaning
Recently, I have been feeling really tired
She has been watching too much television lately
Mary has been feeling a little depressed
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work. ACTIVE
Recently, the work has been being done by John. PASSIVE
ملحوظه: زمن المضارع التام المستمر نادرا ما ياتي بصيغه الغير مباشر
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is rarely used in its passive form.
يتكون زمن الماضي التام من [HAD] + [PAST PARTICIPLE]
................................. التصريف الثالث للفعل
I had studied a little English when I came to the U.S
They had never met an American until they met John
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in Past
يستخدم زمن الماضي التام للتعبير عن حدث انتهي في الماضي قبل حدث آخر. ممكن ان يعبر ايضا عن شيء حدث قبل وقت محدد في الماضي
The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai
؟Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 1992
Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before in 1988
(USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-continuous Verbs
يستخدم للتعبير عن شيء بدأ في الماضي و استمر الي ان حدث شيء آخر
With Non-progressive Verbs and some non-progressive uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past
We had had that car for ten years before it broke down
By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years
IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect
عند استخدام فتره زمنيه محدده مع الماضي التام
عكس المضارع التام تماما ، فإنه يمكن استخدام كلمات محددة او عبارات مع الماضي التام. وإن كان ذلك ممكنا ، فإنه عادة ما لا يكون ضروريا
Unlike the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996
ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license. ACTIVE
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanics license. PASSIVE
Past Perfect Continuous
يتكون زمن الماضي التام المستمر من [HAD BEEN] + [VERB+ing]
I had been waiting there for two hours before she finally arrived
She had only been studying English for two years before she
got the job
USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past
يستخدم زمن الماضي التام المستمر لوصف فتره زمنيه بدأت في الماضي واستمرت حتى وقت آخر في الماضي.
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now
They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived
She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business
James had been teaching at the University for more than a year before he left for Asia
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
استعمال الماضي التام المستمر قبل عمل آخرفي الماضي هو طريقة جيدة لاظهار السبب والنتيجة
Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect
Jason was tired because he had been jogging
Sam gained weight because he had been overeating
اذا لم تشتمل الجمله علي فتره زمنيه "for five minutes," او"for two weeks" او"since Friday" الكثير من متحدثي الانجليزيه يستخدمون الماضي المستمر لكن هناك اختلاف في المعني يظهر عند مقارنه الامثله التاليه
If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday", many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous. There is also a difference in meaning. Compare the examples below
I was reading when my roommate returned
Emphasizes the interruption of "reading
يؤكد توقف "القراءة".
I had been reading for an hour when my roommate returned
Emphasizes the amount of time "for an hour
يؤكد مقدار الوقت "ساعة".
ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years, before he moved to Paris. ACTIVE
The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. PASSIVE
استخدام صيغه الغير مباشر غير شائعه مع زمن الماضي التام المستمر